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Drusus Claudius’ Histories: ‘The Punic Wars part 1’ (3,379 words)
The god Malqart
The god Baal Hammon
Battle of Cannae
Battle of Zama
Roman Equipment, in the age of Claudius: 1st Century AD
During the 1st Century AD, the Imperial Roman legionary expanded and consolidated Rome’s borders and provinces. Numbering around 100,000 these professional soldiers were among the most successful in history, and brought the Roman state to the heights of its power. Training and discipline were essential to make these soldiers into proper legionaries, and so was the latest equipment. Rome was great at acquiring its competitors most innovative features and applying them to her own end. The simple tunic worn under their armor was dyed red, being associated with the Roman god Mars, and it was also cheap and readily available. Most legionary tunics were made of either wool or linen. Green were also used, as well as brown, to a lesser extent, and black—though black was considered unlucky to the average superstitious Roman. Sometimes those assigned to naval duty wore blue, to be associated with the Roman god Neptune. A recruit was required to be able to march 22 miles in as little as 6 hours. It has been noted that many times the Roman armies had defeated their enemies by simply out-marching them. The ‘caligae’ is the sandal used by the soldiers in the First Century AD, which had form-fitting features and drains well after water crossing, and they are also equipped with ‘cingulum militare’ which is the belt of the Roman soldier. This belt would jingle, the dangling metal making a sound which announced the approach of a legionary. Personal details and embellishments are added to these belts, again the superstitious or simply prideful Roman can display lineage or charm spirits—yet another outlet for appeasing spirits. The waistband itself is called the ‘fascia ventralis.’ The ‘focale’ was a neck-scarf used when wearing plate or mail armor, which was used around the time when segmented armor started to become introduced, to prevent scaring or chaffing from the tight-fitting armor. Worn off-duty, this can be another indicator of a legionary. The ‘gladius’ is a sword made for short-thrusting and chopping, for use within a densely packed formation of men. These swords evolved from a late 3rd Century BC design of the Spanish, which Rome had encountered in the first Punic Wars against Carthage. A thrust to the belly is the primary attack.
The ‘galea’ was the helmet of the Imperial legionary and was the amalgamation of the best design features of local Italian and Gallic helmets. A substantial neck-guard, visor, ear cut-outs, and eyebrow ridges were a few of its most prominent features; the hinge-cheek piece allowed for the helmet to rest on the chest while marching. The ‘lorica segmentata’ was the segmented plate armor came into use during the reign of Augustus. Each class of armor had its own virtues and it’s own drawbacks. Segmented armor was quicker to manufacture, offered the greatest protection, and was more light-weight than mail; on the down side it was much more costly and time-consuming to maintain and repair when put to heavy use. The ‘pugio’ was a small, wide dagger which resembled a miniature gladius. It was also encountered by the Spanish during the Punic Wars. The ‘pilum’ was a very specialized type of heavy javelin. Designed for use at close range, the pilum was meant to bend on impact so that the enemy could not easily pick them up and throw them back at the Romans. The ‘scutum’ was the large shield carried by the legionary, and has a distinctive rectangular, curved shape. It’s design is believed to be attributed to Celts of the 6th Century BC, and the patterns painted on the shields had varied widely but were standardized down the centuries. During the reign of Augustus wings and thunderbolt patterns became widespread. The ‘manica’ was a metal arm-guard sometimes used which was originally a piece of gladiator equipment. These limited the legionaries flexibility, to some extent, and wasn’t something standard-issued.
Roman Equipment when fighting against Carthage: in 4th and 3rd Century BC
In the Second Punic War,
The Roman solders at Cannae use their ‘pila’, or heavy javelin, and ‘hastae’, or thrusting spears. They had traditional bronze helmets, bodyshields, and body armor.
In Greek the word ‘Phoenician’ is the equivalent to the Roman’s ‘Punicus,’ which is where we get the term for the ‘Punic Wars.’ There are three wars contained within this monicker, lasting from 264-146 BC.
Carthage, literally translated to “new city,” was the dominant naval empire within the Mediterranean, and possibly the world, during its prime and was a stiff competitor to Rome during its assent as the predominant empire of the known world it would one day become.
‘Hispania’ was the Roman name for the Iberian peninsula which later became Spain. A famous general during the Punic Wars against Rome, Hannibal Barca, seems to be featured on a coin which was officially depicting the god Melqart, however, the facial features are believed to also be of either Hannibal Barca or his father Hamilcar Barca.
The god Melqart Ba’al
The god Melqart was an important Phoenician god as well as the patron deity of the city of Tyre. Associated with the monarchy, colonization, and commercial enterprise, this deity appears on the Carthaginian ‘shekel,’ dated 237-227 BC. This deity seems to be the somewhat equivalent to Hercules/Heracles; on the reverse is a man riding a war elephant, one of the primary advantages Carthage expertly utilized against Rome during the Punic Wars. Melqart is considered to be the progenitor to the Tyrian royal family, and is often also labeled the “Lord of Tyre,” or ‘Ba’al Sur.’ As Tyrian trade and colonization expanded Melqart became venerated in Phoenician and Punic cultures from Lebanon to Spain. Alexander destroyed the Carthaginian home city of Tyre in 332 BC, and refugees flooded into Carthage as a result.
The First Punic War occurred from 264-241 BC, a memorable battle occurring in 241 BC was a fight called the ‘Battle of the Aegates.’
The Battle of Cannae occurred during the Second Punic War.
Melqart Baal is likely to have been the particular Ba’al found in the Tanakh (the Jewish Bible) whose worship was prominently introduced to Israel by king Ahab and largely eradicated by King Jehu.
In Tyre the high priest of Melqart was second only to the king. Hamilcar is a Carthaginian name which reflected the importance of Melqart. Melqart protected the Punic areas of Sicily. Hannibal almost certainly does not refer to Melqart, but instead refers to Ba’al Hammon, the chief god of Carthage; a god who was identified to the Greeks to be Cronus and by the Romans as Saturn.
Because of the scanty evidence scholars vary widely on what kind of a god Melqart was. It had been postulated that Melqart was a god of the underworld partly because of the connection to the Mesopotamian god Nergal. Nergal’s name means “king of the city” and reigns within the underworld.
Hannibal Barca was a faithful worshipper of Melqart, and he made a pilgrimage to the most ancient seat of Phoenician worship in the west where he strengthened himself in prayer and ritual sacrifice at the altar of Melqart and bolstered his spirit before setting off on his march to Italy.
He returned to New Carthage, literally translated as ‘new-new city,’ with his mind focused on the god, Melqart, and on the eve of his departure he saw a vision which he was sent by the god. A youth of divine beauty came to Hannibal in the night and he told Hannibal he had been sent by the supreme deity Jupiter in order to guide the son of Hamilcar to Italy. In the ghostly encounter he goes to follow the apparition but as he turned his head he saw a serpent crashing through forest and thicket, causing destruction everywhere. It moved as a black tempest with claps of thunder and flashes of lightning gathered behind the serpent. He was told when inquiring about the dream: “What thou beholdest is the destruction of Italy. Follow thy star and inquire no further into the dark counsels of Heaven.”
The god Baal Hammon
Although his name wasn’t directly associated with it, Hannibal was a faithful worshipper of Melqart. The Carthaginian Cronus, Baal Hammon according to Greek and Latin sources required offerings of children by fire in the Phoenician colony. Many including Plutarch mention burning of children as an offering to Cronus or Saturn, that is to Phoenician Baal Hammon—the chief god of Carthage.
Plutarch writes: “…but with full knowledge and understanding they themselves offered up their own children, and those who had no children would buy little ones from poor people and cut their throats as if they were so many lambs or young birds; meanwhile the mother stood by without a tear or moan; but should she utter a single moan or let fall a single tear, she had to forfeit the money, and her child was sacrificed nevertheless; and the whole area before the statue was filled with a loud noise of flutes and drums that the cries of wailing should not reach the ears of people.”
He is a man who should be associated, perhaps, with the war elephants which he used against Rome. They must have been terrified. It would be a praise to both Hannibal, and to elephants. Shortly after the start of the Second Punic War, Hannibal crossed into Italy by traversing the Pyrenees and the Alps during summer and early autumn of 218 BC. He quickly won major victories over the Romans at Trebia and Lake Trasimene. At this time the Romans appointed a dictator to handle the threat. When he came to the end of his term, however, the Senate did not renew his dictatorial powers and command was given to two consuls instead. In 216 BC when elections continued, Varro and Paullus were installed as consuls and placed in command of a newly raised army of unprecedented size.
In the spring of 216 BC took the initiative and seized the large supply depot at Cannae, placing himself between the Romans and their crucial source of supply. The Roman consuls, resolving to confront Hannibal, marched southward in search of him. Varro, in command on the first day, is presented by contemporary sources as a man of reckless nature and hubris, who was determined to defeat Hannibal.
While the Romans were approaching Cannae some of Hannibal’s light infantry and cavalry ambushed them. Varro repelled the attack and continued slowly on his way to Cannae. This victory may have bolstered the confidence of the Roman army; perhaps leading to overconfidence on Varro’s part.
Paullus, however, was opposed to the engagement as it was taking shape. Unlike Varro, he was prudent and cautious, and he believed it was foolish to fight on open ground, despite the Roman’s numerical strength. Hannibal held the advantage in cavalry, both quantity and quality. According to Polybius, Hannibal’s cavalry boldly rode up to the edge of the Roman encampment, causing havoc and thoroughly disrupting the supply of water to the Roman camp.
The Battle of Cannae
Took place in 216 BC during the second Punic War, in Apulia which is located in southeast Italy. The army of Carthage, under command of Hannibal, surrounded and decisively defeated a larger army of the Roman Republic under the consuls Lucius Aemilius Paullus and Gaius Terentius Varro. It is regarded both as one of the greatest tactical feats in military history and as one of the worst defeats in Roman history. Carthage was allied with Numidian, Spanish, and Gallic tribes. Hannibal and his brother Hasdrubal commanded about 50,000 men, to Varo and Paullus’s roughly 86,400 men. Having recovered from their losses at Trebia (218 BC) and Lake Trasimene (217 BC), the Romans decided to engage Hannibal at Cannae. Hannibal used the double envelopment tactic and surrounded his enemy. The loss of life on the Roman side was one of the most lethal single day’s fighting in history. Following the defeat, Capua and several other Italian city-states defected from the Roman Empire to Carthage. Gripped in panic, when news reached Rome buried four people alive in tribute to their gods. In order to raise two new legions, the authorities lowered the draft age and enlisted criminals, debtors and even slaves. With grim determination the Romans fought for 14 more years until they achieved victory at the Battle of Zama. In modern times Cannae has developed a kind of mythic quality, and is often used to describe a perfect defeat of an enemy in battle.
On the morning of the battle, as the forces drew up, a Carthaginian officer named Gisgo reportedly remarked to Hannibal that the size of the Roman army was astonishing. “There is one thing, Gisgo, yet more astonishing,” Hannibal cooly replied, “which you take no notice of.” He then explained, “In all those great numbers before us, there is not one man called Gisgo”, provoking laughter that spread through the Carthaginian ranks. The uniting factor for the Carthaginian army was the personal tie each group had with Hannibal.
Varro knew how the Roman infantry had managed to penetrate Hannibal’s center at Trebia, and he planned to recreate this on a an even greater scale. The ‘principes’ were stationed immediately behind the ‘hastati,’ ready to push forward at first contact to ensure the Romans presented a unified front. Even though they outnumbered the Carthaginians, this depth-oriented deployment meant that the Romans lines had a front of roughly equal size to their numerically inferior opponents.
Hasdrubal led the Spanish and Gallic cavalry on the left, and by placing the flank of his army on the Aufidus, his brother Hannibal prevented this flank from being overlapped by the more numerous Romans. Hasdrubal was given about 6,500 cavalry, and Hanno had about 3,500 Numidians on the right.
The Romans were in front of the hill leading to Cannae and hemmed in on their right flank by the river Aufidus, so that their left flank was the only viable means of retreat. In addition, the Carthaginian forces had maneuvered so that the Romans would face East. Not only would the morning sun shine low into the Roman’s eyes, but the southeasterly winds would blow sand into their faces as they approached the battlefield. Hannibal’s deployment of his army, based on his perception of the terrain and understanding of the capabilities of his troops, proved decisive.
As the Roman heavy infantry attacked Hannibal stood with his men in the weak center and held them together in a controlled retreat. The crescent of Hispanic and Gallic troops buckled inward as they gradually withdrew step by step. Knowing the superiority of the Roman infantry, Hannibal had instructed his infantry to withdraw deliberately, creating an even tighter semi-circle around the attacking Roman forces. By doing so, he had turned the strength of the Roman infantry into a weakness. This also gave the Carthaginian cavalry time to drive the Roman cavalry off on both flanks and attack the Roman center in the rear.
The Roman infantry now stripped of protection on both its flanks formed a wedge that drove deeper and deeper into the Carthaginian semi-circle, driving itself into an alley formed by the African infantry on the wings. At this decisive point Hannibal ordered his African infantry to turn inwards and advance against the Roman flanks, creating an encirclement in one of the earliest known examples of a ‘pincer movement.’
For a brief period the Romans were in complete disarray. Their best armies in the peninsula were destroyed, the few remnants severely demoralized, and the only remaining consul, Varro, was no completely discredited.
Philip V of Macedon pledged his support to Hannibal following the Carthaginian victory. Within these three campaign seasons Rome had lost one-fifth of the entire population of male citizens over 17 years of age. Most of southern Italy joined Hannibal’s cause after Cannae.
“Before that fateful day, their loyalty remained unshaken, now it began to waver for the simple reason that they despaired of Roman power…” noted the Historian Livy. That same year the the Greek cities in Sicily were induced to revolt against Roman political control, while the Macedonian King Philip V, pledged his support to Hannibal initiating the First Macedonian Wars against Rome.
The battle of Zama
Occurred in 202 BC, in ‘Zama’ or Tunisia, marked the end of the Second Punic War. A Roman army led by Scipio Africanus, with crucial support from the Numidians, defeated the Carthaginian army led by Hannibal Barca. This battle resulted in a decisive victory for Rome.
The Carthaginians broke the armistice with Rome. Confident in Hannibal’s forces, they recalled their great general out of Italy while under peace terms negotiated by Scipio Africanus. Scipio and Hannibal confronted each other near Zama Regia. Hannibal had 36,000 infantry to Scipio’s 29,000.
Hannibal also employed 80 war elephants. The elephants opened the battle by charging the main Roman army. Defeated on their home ground the Carthaginian ruling elite sued for peace and accepted humiliating terms, ending the 17 year war.
Scipio’s soldiers avoided the elephants by opening their ranks, driving them off with missiles.
The Roman and Numidian cavalry subsequently defeated the Carthaginian cavalry and chased them from the battlefield.
Hannibal’s first line of mercenaries attacked Scipio’s infantry and were defeated.
The second line of citizen levies and the mercenary’s remnant assaulted and inflicted heavy losses on the Roman first line.
The Roman second line joined the struggle and pushed back the Carthaginian assault. Hannibal’s third line of veterans, reinforced by the citizen levies and mercenaries, faced off against the Roman army which had been redeployed into a single line.
The combat was fierce and evenly matched. Scipio’s cavalry finally returned to the battle and attacked Hannibal’s army from the rear, routing and destroying it.
The terms Carthage acceded to were so punishing that it was never able to challenge Rome for supremacy of the Mediterranean again. The treaty bankrupted Carthage and destroyed any chance of its being a military power in the future. However, it’s economic recovery was quick, and when Rome waged war on Carthage again about 50 years later they had little power and could not defeat the by-then very aged Masinissa in Africa.
After an extended siege their home city was captured and completely destroyed in 146 BC.
Scipio had ordered his cavalrymen to blow loud horns to frighten the beasts, and several rampaging elephants turned toward the Carthaginian left wing and disordered it completely.
Seizing this opportunity Masinissa led his Numidian cavalry and charged the Carthaginian left wing, which was ‘also’ composed of Numidian cavalry, and was unknowingly lured off the battlefield.
Meanwhile the elephants were carefully lured through the lanes and were funneled to the rear of the Roman army, where they were dealt with…
Scipio’s plan to neutralize the threat of the war elephants had worked. His troops then fell back into traditional Roman battle formation. Laelius, the commander of the Roman left wing charged against the Carthaginian right.
The Carthaginian cavalry, under instruction of Hannibal, allowed the Roman cavalry to chase them in order to lure them away from the battlefield so that they wouldn’t attack the Carthaginian armies in the rear.
Scipio now marched with his center towards the Carthaginian center, and Hannibal then moved forward in two lines, and a third line of veterans were kept in reserve.
After a close contest, his first line was pushed back by the Roman ‘hastati’. Hannibal now charged with his second line where a furious struggle ensued and the Roman ‘hastati’ were pushed back with heavy losses. Scipio reinforced the ‘hastati’ with the second-line ‘principes.’
The son of Enlil and Ninlil, along with siblings Nanna and Ninurta, Nergal was a god of war, plague, and death. There are relief carvings of Nergal as far forward as the first or second century AD from Hatra in Iraq, preserved in modern times.
According to the Talmudists his emblem was a cockerel and Nergal means a “dunghill cock.”’ He is also pictured as a lion.
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